Content (Syllabus outline)
History and economic importance of dairying.
Milk as biological fluid and raw material. Definition of milk, milk biosynthesis and secretion, influence of genetic, physiological and environmental factors on milk composition.
Hygienic production of milk. Physiology of milking, different milking systems, their impact on milk. Sources of microbial contamination of milk, milking hygiene, primary/secondary microbiota of milk, effect of udder health condition and environmental factors on size and composition of microbial population. Mastitis: causative agents, changes in milk composition, prevention, control. Milk and pathogenic bacteria - infections, intoxications.
Primary handling and processing of milk. Significance of cooling and heat treatment of milk. Milk as substrate for growth of microorganisms (MO), taxonomy and physiology of technologically important groups of MO and their activity. Biochemical processes: positive (formation of taste, aroma and texture of dairy products), negative (spoiling and shelf life shortening of products).
Dairy starter cultures. Significance of LAB in food fermentation. Starter and non-starter cultures.
Setting up a small-scale milk processing unit. Knowledge of equipment and legal regulations for setting up a small-scale milk processing unit.
Milk processing. All the acquired theoretical knowledge regarding technological schemes for production of dairy products will be directly implemented at practicals, where students will manufacture some dairy products from the group of fermented milks (yogurt, sour milk, concentrated fermented milk), products with higher fat content (raw butter, kaymak, overheated cream, melted butter), fresh cheeses (curd, cottage cheese, mascarpone), ripened cheeses (very hard, hard, semi-hard, soft cheeses).
Defects of dairy products. Most common defects of dairy products, identification and mitigation of faults in the technological manufacturing process
Quality schemes of milk and dairy products. To get acquainted with milk and dairy products quality schemes at the national and EU level
Sanitary-hygiene measures and control. Cleaning and disinfection of milking and dairy equipment, cleaning procedures. Biofilms, plant and dairy products control, frequency and critical areas of sampling. Safety and quality assurance, HACCP.
Prerequisites for the work:
- Entry in the corresponding year of study program