Content (Syllabus outline)
Introduction. History and economic importance of dairying.
Milk as biological fluid and as raw material. Definition, biosynthesis and secretion of milk; milking; influence of genetic, physiological and environmental factors on milk composition.
Structure and physical properties of milk; chemical composition of milk; description of nutrients and non-nutritional components.
Influence of milk composition on technological properties; acidic and enzymatic coagulation; comparisons of milk of different mammalian species.
Microbiology of milk. Milking hygiene; primary and secondary microbiota of milk; influence of udder health status and environmental factors on size and composition of milk microbiota; review of main groups of microorganisms. Mastitis, most common causative agents, changes in milk composition, preventive measures, control. Milk and pathogenic bacteria – infections, intoxications, typical pathogenic bacteria; opportunistic bacteria.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Importance of LAB in food fermentation and in ecology of gastro-intestinal tract; probiotics. Primary handling and processing of milk. Importance of cooling and heat treatment procedures of milk; overview of main groups of dairy products. Dairy processing technologies for production of fermented milks, cream, butter, cheese.
Role of milk and dairy products in healthy human nutrition.
Sanitary-hygiene measures and control.
Cleaning and disinfection of milking and dairy equipment, cleaning procedures.
Biofilms, plant control and dairy products control, frequency and places of sampling. Assurance of quality and safety, HACCP.
Prerequisites for the inclusion in work:
- entry in the corresponding year of study program,
- mandatory participation at laboratory work,
- mandatory participation at field work and in project work.
Prerequisites for performing study obligations:
For the Exam:
- completed laboratory work and pass graded colloquium,
- prepared report from field work,
- positive graded presentation of project work (group presentation).