Content (Syllabus outline)

• Reproductive strategies.

Reproductive cycles and methods of reproduction.

• Courtship and mating.

Secondary sexual characteristics. Fertilization and egg deposition. The evolution of mating systems.

• Vocalization

The communication system of Urodelans. Mechanisms of sound formation and sound perception. Phylogenetic implications of vocalization.

• Eggs and development.

Sperm and fertilization. Structure and development of fertilized eggs. Development and diversity of amphibians.

• Larvae.

Morphology, Physiology and Ecology of larvae. Evolutionary significance of larvae.

• Metamorphosis.

Endocrine control. Morphological changes. Cellular and biochemical changes. Regulation of the relevant genes. Regulation by thyroid hormones. Neoteny. Ecological and evolutionary significance of metamorphosis.

• Relations with the environment.

Adaptations to the aquatic environment. Temperature. The exchange of gases. Metabolism.

• Food and nutrition.

• The role of sensory organs in the perception of prey. Anatomical specialization in hunting of prey. Evolution of hunting prey mechanisms.

• Enemies and defence.

The mechanisms for protection. The evolution of defence mechanisms.

• Skeletal and muscular systems.

Skull. Axial and appendicular skeletal system.

• Integumentary  and sensory system.

Integument. Integumentary receptors. Sensory receptory systems

• Nervous system

Brain. Peripheral nervous system.

• Circulatory and respiratory systems.

• Urogenital system.

• Endocrine glands.

• Methodology for determining the age of amphibians and other vertebrates.

• Diversity or species specificity of amphibians on the Slovenian territory


• Functional morphology of Proteus anguinus.

Anatomy. Sensory systems. Central nervous system. Metabolism. Ontogenesis of Proteus anguinus.

• Accumulation of microelements, heavy metals and other pollutants in the environment and tissues of Proteus anguinus and other amphibians.


Prerequisites for inclusion in the work:

· enrolment in the appropriate academic year


Recommended knowledge of anatomy and physiology of vertebrates.